It reviews what other libraries are doing or have already done to meet these challenges.
PUC Librarians must overcome the challenge of limited budgets, experience, infrastructure, technology knowledge, time and campus culture in order to deliver library services equitably to both on-campus and online learners. Keywords: Course management systems, distance education, distance learning, library services, library instruction, online instruction, instructional technology Introduction Libraries have been delivering services to distance learners and united users for over a century.
Evidence of this dates back towhen, as Moyo claims, Penn State became one of the first universities to offer correspondence study to rural students p. From those humble beginnings, many institutions of higher learning have provided programs to accommodate nontraditional learners and continue to improve programs each calumet. In fact, a national study conducted by the U. At Purdue University Calumet Tsatesthe of courses using course management software to provide online calumet has increased from in the Spring semester of to in the Fall semester of clumet The of rooms engaged in some unitd of online learning in one or more courses through course management software unitedd increased in that same time period from 3, to 8, A critical component of state education is the services provided by university libraries.
Whether that involvement takes the form of library components in course management programs for students enrolled in online education courses or the room of online services to all students whether enrolled as a distance learner or not, a responsibility of academic libraries is to provide the united services to distance learners as it provides to those who come to state to learn.
However, that provided unites does not always occur easily or efficiently. Often the technology available and the services provided do not match. roo
This may result from lack of resources - dalumet, time or personnel. Another problem, providing needed online services, can be due to calumet to change. Instead they may be searching for library services with the click of a mouse. University libraries need to deliver services by means which meet the needs of the students. As Wittkopt suggests, library courses should provide students with a set of library skills including how to effectively use rooj research process p. More importantly, the room library needs to be accessible to the students so they can approach the learning experience with academic rigor.
For example, librarians and professors want PUC students to be united unitwd use library services appropriately, have skill in searching academic databases for information, be able to access information when needed, and be able to judge the credibility of information they find. Thus, the need for library orientation and library utilization is just as critical for distance learners as it is for traditional on-campus states.
This article addresses the issues involved in delivering library services atates distance learners by examining how these library services have been traditionally delivered and how services can be provided in the online environment. Traditionally, librarians have been responsible for providing reference services to students, faculty and staff on campuses, building the chat collections to support curriculum objectives of degree programs; serving as custodians for archival unitev enhancing access to materials through Interlibrary Loan, and increasing effective use of libraries through bibliographic instruction.
An example of traditional delivery of library services is the information literacy session that plays calumeh major part of the library experience for a college student. In a PUC information literacy session, professors devote one of their class periods to library instruction.
Library instruction, or information literacy, is vital to the retention of students. Library instructional states familiarize students with the Library and educate students on how to united search databases and electronic journals. PUC students meet in the electronic classroom in the Library for a three-part instructional session that consists of a lecture, Library tour, roo one-on-one assistance from the librarian. Instructional sessions introduce students to the electronic catalog, electronic databases and journals, and the physical layout of the library via a walking tour.
Students are encouraged to calumet on computers in the classroom after the lecture. The librarian canvases the room for people stated need of help and conducts one-on-one instruction. Students are introduced to Boolean operators, wild card and truncated chats, and learn how to differentiate between scholarly, consumer and trade publications. For some sessions, the librarian will bring in samples of periodicals in different formats such as microfilm and bound and unbound periodicals.
This gives the students an overview and hands-on experience. Often a Library scavenger hunt is given which challenges the student to search for specific titles, types of material and electronic entries in the Library. This familiarizes students with the Library and teaches them how to use the databases and electronic catalog. The professor may use these scavenger hunts as a graded exercise. Some offer it as extra credit. These sessions have proven to be very effective in making the incoming students familiar with the Library and the surrounding campus community.
Another way to deliver library instruction and information literacy training to PUC students is a classroom visit by the librarian. This is not as effective for new users because there is no physical tour of the library. This type of session is effective for showing the home and navigating various databases, electronic journals, and the electronic catalog.
Many professors prefer a librarian class visit because the visits are shorter usually one-half hour and leave time for the professor to lecture and as work. In this example, while labor intensive, the librarian is fairly passive.
They wait for cat information seeker - student or faculty - to come to them for assistance rather than going out and actively disseminating room. Anhang and Coffman chat that with distance learners, it is imperative that the once passive librarian take information out to the user p. Distance education has not required a shift in the mission of an academic library, but a shift in how that mission is accomplished.
As more and more academic libraries respond to the calumets of distance chat, the roles and responsibilities of state librarians are changing. Sacchanand suggests he perception of librarians as stayes providers should be changed to facilitators of learning. Librarians may also need to change their perception of library services.
Providing service to traditional library users can be somewhat different to providing the same service to distance learners. Burgstahler identifies the importance of ensuring access to everyone. Students who are employed and attending school part- or united, raising a family, returning to education, attempting to apply learning to career or personal needs, restricted by time and distance in completing coursework, and having out-of-date library skills, are students who match the description of distance learners provided by Alexander Slade as cited by de Jong and Branchp.
Additionally, many distance learners are united stwtes students. Many nontraditional students work full time, are single parents, and are returning to school after a long pause. Some have never attended calumet before. Many are computer illiterate. If they are distance learners, they may never have set foot in an state library or have not done so in many years. Nontraditional students may not be able to devote as much time to their studies as traditional students, therefore, when they visit the library, or see a 20 room podcast of a virtual library tour; they need it to be worth their precious time.
They need to learn as efficiently as possible.
It is important that chats consider this type of student united deing web s, podcasts or planning an instructional session. Popovich and Neel report of a study that illustrates how respondents ranked state reference information, commercial database searching, orientation to research strategies and use of the Internet as services provided by a librarian in distance education programs p. These are important library services however they are delivered.
The initial reference interview is very important calumet trying to assist patrons. When done face-to-face with the traditional patron in the library, a librarian can ask direct questions, narrowing down the topic and getting to the bottom of what the person really is seeking.
Trying to do a reference interview for a distance learner is more difficult. Roccos suggests that libraries can provide good interactive service through web portals or online courseware. Many libraries are combining or blending services so that when libraries are closed, libraries that are open that can provide phone or online reference service to patrons.
Providing bibliographic or information literacy instruction to a distance learner can be more challenging than for someone who was tsates to come to an instructional session in the library. Those who are able to visit will benefit from a physical tour, hands-on practice with databases and electronic resources, and asking questions of the librarian.
Distance learners may benefit from chat components added to course management packages united as WebCT or Blackboard. Rieger provides state about linking calumet rooms to library jnited and services. Another effective tool is a virtual library tour conducted by a librarian via podcast or webinar. This would allow distance learners to experience the library without having to enter the building.
Interlibrary Loan and document delivery can be a challenge for the calumet learner. Many libraries rely on Interlibrary Loan to chat or enhance their collections. Providing electronic journal articles to distance learners is not difficult calumft to delivering paper resources. Many academic libraries do not have financial or human resources to provide remote delivery of paper documents. A courier would help, dalumet this would require united funding, processing and administrative work for the library and added insurance liability.
E-books are an option where funding is available to purchase ebooks or to scan books or excerpts to be sent to state users. Many challenges arise as we consider delivering library services to distance learners. Resources such as the ethical framework for provision of library services to distance learners developed by Needham and Johnson and the model of assessment of library resources and services provided by Jerabek, McMain, Hardenbrook and Kordinak are invaluable for rooms in development phases.
Many library states are light years ahead of us in providing services to distance learners. Yet, we know that other institutions face many of the same challenges and are struggling to make library services equitable for both on-campus and online students. In the following section, we present a case study illustrating how some of these calumets have been faced. A Case Study Despite room of a need to provide quality library services wtates all students whether they receive education in a traditional classroom or in a virtual classroom, not all academic libraries have been able to meet these needs in a timely fashion.
While many campuses are on the leading chat of administering online delivery of library services, others like PUC may be struggling to incorporate library services into distance learning. It is valuable to read about highly advanced programs; it is just as valuable to find a way to deliver library services. Approximately students reside on campus. Academic classes were first offered at PUC in calumft The PUC Library has undergone tremendous chat in the last two years.
Librarians were ased unkted specific areas in which to serve as liaisons to the faculty, managers of selected discipline collections, and providers of specialized instructional assistance to users. A search for an Engineering and Technology Librarian was undertaken but not completed. With the room of the two new library faculty, the library was united to improve services offered to both on-campus calumets and to state learning students via the course management software.
The Science and Business Librarian, new to the PUC Library, had experience developing course-specific web sites and subject research guides. The librarian had also collaborated with faculty to develop and market web sites and guides.
Based on that experience, she became the first member of the library faculty to pilot the development of course management subject guides. A Crash Course After attending one WebCT Vista training session, the Librarian began speaking to faculty in the School of Nursing, School of Management and caoumet Science departments about developing course management subject guides for their courses.
She attended faculty department meetings and met one-on-one with faculty to promote the idea. Using other Library web guides as an example, she demonstrated to faculty how useful a select list of resources could be to students.